如何写好白话文

胡适是五四运动时期的学术领袖之一,他主张推广白话文。1916年7月6日,他在日记里写了9条想法。我觉得,其中好几条在今天也适用。想要写好白话文,这是很好的参考。

一、文字要通俗,但不要俚俗。

二、言辞要以达意为主,不能达意,皆为不美。

三、文法要自然和简单。

四、用词多用双音词,少用单音词。

五、写出来的文字要可读、可听、可讲、可记,甚至可歌。

六、文字要明白通晓,诵之村妪妇孺皆可懂。

作者: 阮一峰

创造者的鉴赏力 | Taste for Makers

February 2002

"...Copernicus' aesthetic objections to [equants] provided one essential motive for his rejection of the Ptolemaic system...."

- Thomas Kuhn,?The Copernican Revolution

“哥白尼对天动说美学上的反对是他拒绝托勒密体系的重要原因…”
- Thomas Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution

"All of us had been trained by Kelly Johnson and believed fanatically in his insistence that an airplane that looked beautiful would fly the same way."

- Ben Rich,?Skunk Works

“在Kelly Johnson的训练之下,我们狂热地坚信他的主张: 一架看上去很美的飞机飞得也会同样的美.”
- Ben Rich, Skunk Works

"Beauty is the first test: there is no permanent place in this world for ugly mathematics."

- G. H. Hardy,?A Mathematician's Apology

“美是第一道检验: 世上没有永久的地方容纳丑陋的数学.”
- G. H. Hardy, A Mathematician’s Apology


I was talking recently to a friend who teaches at MIT. His field is hot now and every year he is inundated by applications from would-be graduate students. "A lot of them seem smart," he said. "What I can't tell is whether they have any kind of taste."
我最近与一位在MIT任教的朋友聊天. 他的领域现在很热门,来自即将成为研究生的申请表每年都潮水般地涌向他. “他们中的大多数看上去都很聪明,”他说. “我不能确定的是他们是否有鉴赏力.”

Continue reading "创造者的鉴赏力 | Taste for Makers"

罗素对1000年后的人类的建议

1959年,BBC采访伯特兰·罗素(Bertrand Russell)时,BBC的记者问到了个问题,罗素的回答值得传承。

问题:

Suppose Lord Russell that this film were to be looked at by our descendants, like a dead sea scroll in a thousand years time. What would you think it’s worth telling that generation about the life you’ve lived and the lessons you’ve learned from it?

罗素伯爵,假定这段录像将被我们的后人看到,如同《死海古卷》一般,在一千年后被人看到,您觉得有什么该对他们那一代人说的呢?

罗素的回答:

I should like to say two things, one intellectual and one moral:

我想要说的有两点,其一关乎智慧,其二关乎道德:

The intellectual thing I should want to say to them is this: When you are studying any matter or considering any philosophy, ask yourself only what are the facts and what is the truth that the facts bear out. Never let yourself be diverted either by what you wish to believe, or by what you think would have beneficent social effects if it were believed, but look only and solely at what are the facts. That is the intellectual thing that I should wish to say.

关于智慧,我想对他们说的是,不管你正在研究什么事物,还是在思考任何观点,只问你自己,事实是什么,以及这些事实所证实的真理是什么?永远不要让自己被自身更愿意相信的东西,或是你认为如果人们相信了的话会对社会更加有益的东西所影响,只是单单地去审视什么才是事实。关于智慧的,这是我想说的。

The moral thing I should wish to say to them is very simple. I should say: Love is wise, hatred is foolish. In this world, which is getting more and more closely interconnected, we have to learn to tolerate each other. We have to learn to put up with the fact that some people say things that we don’t like. We can only live together in that way, and if we are to live together and not die together we must learn a kind of charity and a kind of tolerance which is absolutely vital to the continuation of human life on this planet.

有关道德方面,我想对他们说的十分简单。我要说,爱是明智的,恨是愚蠢的。在这个日益紧密相连的世界,我们必须学会容忍彼此,我们必须学会接受这样一个事实,总会有人说出我们不想听的话。只有这样,我们才有可能共同生存。而假如我们想要共同生存,而非共同走向灭亡,我们就必须学会这种宽容与忍让。因为它们对于人类在这个星球上的存续至关重要。


伯特兰·罗素简介

伯特兰·亚瑟·威廉·罗素,第三代罗素伯爵(Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell,1872年5月18日-1970年2月2日),英国哲学家、数学家和逻辑学家,致力于哲学的大众化、普及化。

1950年,罗素获得诺贝尔文学奖,以表彰其“西欧思想,言论自由最勇敢的君子,卓越的活力,勇气,智慧与感受性,代表了诺贝尔奖的原意和精神”,很多人将罗素视为这个时代的先知。

1921年罗素曾于中国讲学,对中国学术界有相当影响。